Senior Analyst at the Research Institute for European and American Studies. Born in Benghazi, Libya, she holds a Certificate in Terrorism Studies from The Centre for the Study of Terrorism and Political Violence at the University of St. Andrews's School of International Relations, Certificates in Conflict Analysis and Interfaith Conflict Resolution from the United States Institute of Peace, an M.A. in International Relations and Affairs from the University of Indianapolis and a B.A. in Political Science from the University of La Verne. Her work has been published by The International Journal for Intelligence and CounterIntelligence, the Oxford Law Society Journal as well as being distributed by the Canadian Center for Intelligence and Security Studies and the International Security Network (ISN). She is an expert on Islamic Fundamentalism and Energy Security. She is also a Member of the International Advisory Board for the Mediterranean Council of Intelligence Studies (MCIS).